Understanding the Science of Addiction

10.04.16
  • Papatya Tankut of CVS Health introduces a panel of health care experts to discuss opioid abuse.
    Papatya Tankut, R.Ph., VP, Pharmacy Affairs, CVS Health, sets the stage for a panel discussion on the state of the opioid crisis in America.

Society is more open to discussing opioid addiction than ever before, so it’s important to take every opportunity to shine a light on the epidemic, explained Dr. Monica Bharel, Commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health during a panel discussion in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Bharel was one of four experts who explored the science of addiction and the state of the opioid epidemic in America.

In addition to Dr. Bharel, the panelists included: Dr. Scott Lukas, a veteran psychopharmacology researcher; Dr. Sarah Wakeman, the Medical Director of Substance Use Disorders at Massachusetts General Hospital; and  Seth Mnookin, an accomplished science journalist who has firsthand experience with heroin addiction.

How Opioids Become Addictive

Opiates are extremely effective at alleviating both physical and mental pain, but relief can come with a steep price, explained Dr. Lukas. Opioids interfere with receptors in the brain that measure carbon dioxide levels and regulate breathing, which can lead to fatal overdose. Furthermore, the bodies can develop a tolerance to opioids, creating the need to metabolize increasing levels to avoid withdrawal.

According to Dr. Wakeman, people misusing opioids may start out using them to feel good but shift to using them to avoid feeling like they will die, an effect brought on by withdrawal. In describing his own experience, Mr. Mnookin said it was a constant struggle to get back to feeling that he wasn’t “drowning.”

Many Who Struggle with Opioid Addiction Began with Prescription Drugs

The majority of individuals battling opioid addiction started out with an opiate that was originally prescribed by a doctor, according to Dr. Bharel. This underscores how crucial it is to prevent prescription drug abuse in order to turn the tide on the larger opioid epidemic.

The number of individuals impacted by opioid addiction has grown significantly in recent years. In 2014, nearly two million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids, and in Massachusetts alone, four people die every day of a drug overdose.

We Can All Play a Role in Preventing Opioid Addiction

Dr. Lukas shared two things people can do right now to help. First, anyone who is storing prescription opiates at home should properly dispose of them, he implored. Unused prescription drugs can easily be obtained undetected by other people in the home, including family members and guests.

Second, he suggested that individuals help eliminate the stigma around substance misuse disorder. Emphasizing this point, Dr. Bharel encouraged the audience to try to see the “human-ness” in people struggling with addiction and to understand it as an incurable disease that is not unlike other chronic illnesses.

Participating in events like this is one way CVS Health is helping to advance the dialogue around the opioid epidemic. Our company is committed to fighting prescription drug abuse and preventing it from affecting more lives. In communities across the country, we’re educating teens, promoting safe drug disposal and expanding access to life-saving overdose medications. By working to help the public understand the science behind addiction, we can help reduce the stigma associated with opioid abuse and help the health care community develop effective strategies to reduce overdose deaths. 

Naloxone availability across the United States

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CVS Pharmacy patients in 41 states now have access to the opioid overdose-reversal drug, naloxone.

Follow our commitment to drug abuse prevention as we increase access to the life-saving opioid overdose reversal drug.

Panelists participating in the September 2016 panel included:

Monica Bharel, MD, MPH
Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Sarah Wakeman, MD, FASAM
Medical Director for Substance Use Disorders, Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Community Health Improvement

Scott E. Lukas, PhD
Director, Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, McLean Hospital

Seth Mnookin
STAT News Journalist and Co-Director of MIT’s Graduate Program in Science